Face covering for 6 to 12 months from 24th July


Everyone must wear masks in shops and restaurants and controllers of premises can insist they are worn.


From 24th July 2020, in England the wearing of a face covering in ‘relevant places’ has, subject to a ‘reasonable excuse’ exemption, been made a legal requirement. Children under the age of 11 are excluded.

The ‘relevant places’ are all shops, enclosed shopping centres, arcades and any enclosed parts of port, airports, bus and train stations (‘transport hubs’).

Specifically excluded are:

  • restaurants with table service, including restaurants and dining rooms in hotels or members’ clubs
  • bars, including bars in hotels or members’ clubs
  • public houses
  • areas at transport hubs where seating or tables are made available for the consumption of food and drink

Food and drink is clearly the common denominator for exclusion. Presumably, given a cafe can ask you to sit at a table while they prepare your food or drink, the fact that service is normally counter-service would not prevent exclusion as long as there are tables.

Here, from the Part 2 of the Schedule in the regulations, is a full list of Exemptions from definition of Shop (as at 24 July 2020) that you can refer to when necessary.

What is a face covering?

“face covering” means “a covering of any type which covers a person’s nose and mouth”. Although examples in the guidance include a scarf, bandana, religious garment or hand-made cloth covering, there is no reference to guidance in the regulations and the guidance is not mandatory.

Reasonable excuse exemption

Examples of a ‘reasonable excuse’ not to wear a face covering include:

  • you cannot put on, wear or remove a face covering because of a disability (within the meaning of section 6 of the Equality Act 2010(1))
  • accompanying or providing assistance to someone relying on lip reading to communicate with you;
  • removing your face covering to avoid harm or injury, or the risk of harm or injury, to yourself or others;
  • entering a relevant place to avoid injury, or to escape a risk of harm, but not having a face covering with you
  • it is reasonably necessary to eat or drink;
  • to take medication;
  • a person responsible for a relevant place (or their employee) requires it to verify your identity;
  • in a registered pharmacy, to assist in the provision of healthcare;
  • a ‘relevant person’ requests it
Is ‘severe distress’ what the government needs to see?

It is noteworthy that, unlike other regulations, “to avoid illness” is not listed as a reasonable excuse. Instead, another specific excuse is you cannot put on, wear or remove a face covering “without severe distress”.

This phrase has been a feature of government guidance. In some respects it sets a lower bar than ‘disability’ because a long term condition is not required. This could, therefore, cover an acute reaction to being required to wear a face covering. In other respects, this sets a high and cruel bar indeed. The implication is the government requires your stiff upper lip to include suffering periods of anxiety and mental or physical fatigue which could be very distressing and cause illness yet not, in the opinion of the relevant person without any medical qualification, causing ‘severe’ distress.

However, it must be remembered that the list is not exclusive. Your reasonable excuse might not be in the list. Also, there is the excuse “to avoid harm or injury, or the risk of harm or injury”.  Since a face covering can be ‘removed’, it seems that a face covering may need to be carried or worn first, but removal might be reasonable to avoid harm, or mere risk of harm, even if the immediate distress is not demonstrably ‘severe’.   

Who will enforce this?

Government advice to businesses and controllers of premises is NOT to try to enforce wearing of face covering and instead to leave this others. In particular, to the police, police community support officers, TfL officers, and any other person designated by the Secretary of State for Health. Significantly, unlike other regulations, these ‘relevant persons’ do not include persons designated by Local Authorities.

If a ‘relevant person’ considers that you are not wearing a face covering when you should be, they may direct you to wear a face covering and to leave the relevant place. A police constable may use reasonable force if necessary, but not others.

Apart from expectation of significant disagreements arising, there is good reason for keeping businesses and local authorities out of enforcement.

They might include that they would be putting themselves in very obvious risk of disability discrimination. There is significant portion of the population who by reason of their disability are put at a substantial disadvantage if required to wear a face covering. This may include, for example, citizens who suffer from deafness or otherwise need to see lips or full face for communication, asthma or other respiratory conditions, anxiety, depression, general anxiety disorder, paranoia, schizophrenia among many others.

The regulations do not and cannot trump discrimination law

Anti-discrimination laws in the Equality Act 2010 cannot be overwritten by these regulations. The Equality Act provides fundamental protections for citizens with disabilities. These also overlap with rights to a privacy and autonomy having to be treated with reference to their disability (or, for that matter, their gender, race, sexuality etc.)

What should businesses do?

Businesses and their staff are best advised not to challenge those who refuse to wear a face covering.  Otherwise, at some point in the day there is likely to be a time when someone with a disability is challenged. Depending on how the situation develops, and this could be within minutes or seconds, a situation may arise when the business, and the person conducting the challenge, may find they have committed:

  • an offence for which they are liable on summary conviction to pay a fine of up to £5,000  – section 112 (Aiding contraventions) of the Equality Act 2010; and/or
  • an act of disability discrimination and be ordered to pay to any individual who suffers injury to feelings compensation between £900 and £9,000 – section 119 (Remedies) of the Equality Act 2010

With that in mind, consider the following.

Standing up for others

There will be real concern that those who are already vulnerable will be subject to harassment from those who do not appreciate their disability and who misunderstand that law. They may live to regret it since ignorance of the law will be no excuse when they find themselves in Court.

Those who support and stand up for the rights of others do not have to have a disability themselves in order be protected. The Equality Act 2010 provides protection for those who are treated unfavourably because of someone else’s disability, just as if the disability was theirs.

How to assert your reasonable excuse

There will be many ideas about this. Suing should not necessary but no one likes the threat of litigation. We have provided a toolkit in Face covering: litigation threats and administrative headache.

How long may this go on for?

The regulations are set to expire after 12 months. Review is not scheduled for before 6 months.

Fines and offences

A relevant person can issue a fixed penalty notice to anyone they reasonably believes has committed an offence under the regulations and is 18 or over. The fine is £100 reduced to £50 if paid within 14 days.

A person who, without reasonable excuse, obstructs, contravenes a direction, or fails to comply with an instruction from an enforcement officer under the regulations commits an offence punishable on conviction by a fine.

Wales Welsh Flag Free Stock Photo - Public Domain Pictures

The Welsh Assembly Government, led by First Minister Mark Drakeford, Wales has followed suit in making wearing of face coverings on public transport ‘compulsory’. This is supported by further and extraordinary guidance, given it has the force of law in Wales, not to do such things as read a newspaper, sing, or run for the train if you are late.

We await his decision in relation to requirements to wear face coverings more widely.  As for the continuation of the lockdown in Wales, you may wish to read Welcome to Wales.  Many may fear his guidance will result in the requirements being very more widely indeed.


Warning: Law and circumstances can change very quickly.  Please note the date of publication of any blog post and check for any updates on the issues addressed. In any event, we do not condone or encourage breaching the law and neither the above nor any information posted on this website constitutes legal advice. It must not be relied upon as such and specialist legal advice should be taken in relation to specific circumstances. Please read our disclaimer.

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16 thoughts on “Face covering for 6 to 12 months from 24th July”

  1. The “reasonable excuse” relating to disability says, “because of any physical or mental illness or impairment, OR disability” (my emphasis). This implies to me that a person has a reasonable excuse if they cannot wear a face covering because they suffer from a medical condition which, although not sufficiently serious to be classed as a full disability, would nonetheless be impacted – is this correct?

    1. Thank you but it seems that YouTube has removed this video and disabled the account. Media censorship of information is extremely concerning these days.

  2. Dr Jennine Morgan

    Hypercapnia will affect any person wearing a mask. It is clear that CO2 builds up behind masks, resulting in rebreathing of CO2 rising CO2 in the bloodstream and falls in Oxygen levels. This leads to raised heart rate & respiratory rate that can cause dizziness, fainting, feelings of panic, increased clumsiness & confusion. This causes stress hormone, cortisol to be released & this leads to decreased immunity.

    In addition masks have pores of at least 3 times the size of a virus. They are designed to stop bacterial spread, not the spread of viruses. In fact a study in operating theatres showed no increase in bacterial infections when masks were not used.

  3. How to assert your reasonable excuse = simple. Print off a label that says “I am exempt from wearing a face covering – Please be supportive”.
    No one is going to argue with someone carrying a printed label.
    Your ‘reasonable excuse’ is a private matter between you and your GP

  4. As regards “asserting your reasonable excuse”: anyone who is registered with “Patient Access” (https://www.patientaccess.com/) is able to export a copy of their Medical Record, which can be provided as evidence of any condition that they may have. This includes their name, DOB and NHS number as identifiers as well as the condition itself.

  5. Michael Rhodes

    I went to sainsbury today, I was asked at the door why I wasn’t wearing a mask, to which I replied I was asthmatic, then inside the store , I was asked again, again I replied I was asthmatic, the lady behind the counter that told me it was safer for asthmatics to wear a mask than not. I didn’t realize they were health care professionals, I suppose you learn something new every day.

    1. Simply reply “I am exempt”.
      If they dare to ask why?
      “You should be ashamed. Consider that some people may have a ‘Reasonable Excuse’ not to wear a mask that is, respectfully, none of your business”.

  6. Thanks you so much for all your hard work . It is very much appreciated.
    So far 100 percent success with self identifying as exempt on health grounds and staff reassured me I should not attempt to give a reason or show proof, showing they have been advised of the law.

    I also noted on Govt guidance that giving contact details in restaurants is voluntary and you can just say you are opting out.
    If booking in advance, perhaps ask for a confirmation email to acnowledge the venue know you are opting out and not to pass on your details?
    for venues requesting details on the door, perhaps carry a receipt book and asked for a signed receipt certifying that you details given will not be included in track and trace or passed to any third party.
    Or do you have better suggestions for this issue?
    Many thanks indeed.

  7. I’ve read that these new regulations are civil law and one cannot be arrested for non-conpliance. That enforcement is only applied if the shopkeeper insists on masks being worn. Could you please advise.

  8. Pingback: Face covering for 6 to 12 months from 24th July | Mask Covid Info

  9. 769622 70889Good read, I just passed this onto a colleague who was performing slightly research on that. And he just bought me lunch since I identified it for him smile So let me rephrase that: Thank you for lunch! 51492

  10. Ok lovely people I need advice and hope you can help me so as anxiety, panic attacks, dizziness, tight chest sometimes with stabbing feeling in my heart, breathing difficulties and distress is a reasonable exemption for Not wearing a mask in the work place I called my GP to ask if can support me with a note for my employer as they requested it. Thanks to the save our rights uk fb group I find out about this website. I also find out as I understand that the employer should not ask for medical evidence and it’s already discrimination if they do is that right? I spoke today with HR over the phone and the lady said it’s a company policy and they have to have medical evidence to let me work without mask and if the GP doesn’t want to provide it for me (Gp said I can print the exemption card myself as they don’t do any notes and send me the gov link to do so) then I can get assessed by the wellness team- occupational health at work to see if I can be exempt from wearing a mask so I’m waiting for them to contact me anytime now. I work for Adidas group based in Manchester since 2011 on contract it’s a warehouse work and I work part time from about 4 years as I have two little girls to raise and I’m a single mother. Anyway my employer knows exactly that I have anxiety, depression and in general mental health issues as been admitted to the hospital in 2014 and 2019 both because of domestic violence and they still need a medical evidence for anxiety? I just can’t get over my head why? Ok I don’t have printed off the exemption card as I don’t have a printer or time to go travel shop recently but have the picture on my phone and that’s okay for public transport but not enough for my work? I will just add that I come back to work in September after been on furlough for 6 months. Today I get letters from mental health team from my last two appointments with my psychiatrist (in January and June) but I’m not feeling comfortable sharing any info with my work any more and besides HR told me it wouldn’t count as it have to be up to date and have to clearly state about been medical exempt from wearing a face mask. I’m tired and emotionally drained from working there but I got no choice at the moment in this mad time and don’t want to give up but my mental health is getting worse and I’m worried that if I just let it build up I will end up in the hospital again.
    Could you please advise me what could I do please?
    Someone told me today that I have a good case and I should seek legal advice but I want to see how they gonna deal with me first and do some research and prepare myself.
    Thank you for your attention and looking forward to hear from you. By the way you doing amazing job well done to you all 👏👏👏 this website is very helpful and making me more confident instead of feeling hopeless and like a victim of the broken system…
    Love and peace to you all ❤️🙏🏻

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